Menstruation is the cyclic endometrial shedding and discharge of bloody fluid from the uterus. In simpler terms, it is the series of changes that occur in reproductive organ of a mature female to periodically release an egg under the influence of hormone. The National Health Service (2002), defines it as the period of puberty in the life of every girl, blood at the external organs of generation.
This discharge comes from the interior of the womb, for a period of 30 years. The amount of blood lost at each period varies, If the quantity becomes excessive, as it sometimes does, the health of a woman suffers.
The flow is not, as a rule, established at once, sometimes several month elapses between the first and second menstrual period, but when a few months are over, it recurs and becomes regular.
Different girls experiences their period at different time of life, in temperate climates, it occur between 14thto 16th years. Climatic plays a huge role in the onset of puberty but there are other factors that hastens the time at which it begins in girls.
Anything that arouses the brain such as reading sensual book, movies, conversations etc, tends to accelerate the occurrence of puberty (menstruation).
The monthly period when once established continues to recurs at regular intervals in a woman who is healthy about 30 years, during which time she is capable of convincing (getting pregnant). Menstruation cease during pregnancy and generally during the period of sucking as well. The appearance of menstruation is ushered in by certain well define symptoms. The significance of which should not be ignored. About this time languor and general unfitness for exertion are complained of. Laziness, pains in the pelvic, waist, painful and tender breast, body itching, eye irritation, mood swing, temper, loss of appetite, insomnia, vomiting etc are also complained off, there is a dark ring under the eyes, these signs are referred to as
PER-MENSTRUAL SYNDROME and it passes away as the menstrual functions become established.
The changes which accompany oestrous cycle in girls is usually great, frame becomes rounder and fuller, the hips broaden and fats become deposited in various part of the body, and the breast enlarges. About the first appearance of this discharge, the constitution undergoes a very considerable change, generally, indeed, for the better.
The greatest care is then necessary, as the future health and happiness of the woman depends, in a great measure upon her conduct in the period. She should be careful to take exercise daily in the open, to partake of a wholesome, nutritious diet and not wear tight clothes. The exercise should be free and active, which will be found to promote digestion, enliven her spirits and ensure a proper discharge.
The final cessation of the menstrual discharge like that of its beginning is a critical period with all women. It seldom ceases all at once but sometime before its stoppage somewhat irregular, the best object of treatment at this period should be to avoid irritation or mental stress.
This varies among women and last 2-7 days, and occur every 22 to 28 days with the longest cycle occurring every 32 days. Most girls have testified that they only experience a drop of blood as their period and usually do not experience any of the incontinence that preludes the cycle.
Usually, when there is no pregnancy or when fertilization failed to take place, corpus luteum denegation leading to a subsequent drop in the level of progesterone, withdrawal progestational support for the endomentrium leads to bleeding.
The spiral arteries constrict resulting in Ischemia of the endometrium and the resulting in necrosis leads to desquamation and eventually menstrual bleeding, in other words, when there is no pregnancy, the thickened lining of the uterus is shed under the influence of hormone and s expelled through the virginal as bleeding (Menstruation).
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Endometrium – Mucous membrane forming the lining of the uterine wall.
Progesterone – antioestrogen steroid used to correct abnormalities or the menstrual cycle, it is also used as a contraceptive, and also in control of habitual abortion.
Necrosis – Pathologic death of one or more cells or of a portion of tissue or organ.
Ischemia – Thrombosis of blood vessel, obstruction or blockage of vessel.